
Measurements 

WhiteTailed Deer
Instructions
1. lNSIDE SPREAD of Main
Beams:
Measure the inside spread of the main antler beams at the widest place.
This measurement should be at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of
the skull, and parallel to its horizontal axis.
2. CIRCUMFERENCE of Main Beam: (Fig. 1) Measure the
circumference of each main antler beam at the four places indicated
below. Circumferences must be taken at a right angle to the longitudinal
axis of the antler at the smallest place between typical tines,
disregarding the nontypical tines.
Cl. Between the burr and T1. Measure the circumference of
the main antler beam at the smallest place between the burr and the
typical brow tine, or "eyeguard" (T1). If Tl is absent, measure at the
smallest place between the burr and the second typical tine (T2), which
will make this measurement the same as C2.
C2. Between T1 and T2. Measure the circumference of the
main antler beam at the smallest place between the typical brow tine
(T1) and second typical tine (T2). If Tl is absent, measure at the
smallest place between the burr and T2, which will make this
measurement the same as Cl.
C3. Between T2 and T3. Measure the circumference of
the main antler beam at the smallest place between the the second
typical tine (T2) and third typical tine (T3). If T3 is absent,
measure at the smallest place between the center of the base of T2 and
the beam tip, which will make this measurement the same as C4.
C4. Between T3 and T4.
Measure
the circumference of the main antler beam at the smallest place between
the third typical tine (T3) and fourth typical tine (T4). If T4 is
absent, measure halfway between the center of the base of T3 and the
beam tip. If T1 (typical brow tine) is absent, measure both Cl
and C2 at the same place. This will be at the smallest place between
the burr and T2. If T4 (fourth typical tine) is absent, measure C4 halfway between
the center of the base of T3 and the beam tip. If an antler has
only two points Tl and the beam tip, measure C2, C3 and C4 at the
same place. This will be halfway between the center of the base of Tl
and the beam tip. If an antler has only two points T2 plus the beam
tip, measure Cl and C2 at the same place between the burr and T2, and
measure C3 and C4 at the same place, which will be halfway between T2
and the beam tip. If an antler is a simple spike (no tines at all),
measure all four circumferences at the same place. This will be halfway
between the base of the burr (not the top of the burr) and the beam tip.
3. LENGTH of Main Beam: (Fig. 2)
First, it is necessary to
determine the main beams and their tips. The main beams are
usually easy to identify in whitetailed deer, because they will end at
the rear most points; however, some nontypical antlers may have more
than one projection at the end of the beam. If so, choose the one that
appears to be the logical beam tip because of its contour, size and
location. Measure the length of each main antler beam from the bottom
edge of the burr (or coronet) to the tip. If a beam tip is broken so
that its far point is not on the line of measurement, it should be
carded off. The measurement follows the center of the antler's outer
curve and is essentially parallel to the longitudinal blood grooves.
Begin the measurement where the centerline of the outer curve
intersects the bottom edge of the burr. This will be on the side of the
head and behind the eye, not in front on the forehead.
4. LENGTH OF TYPICAL TINES: (Fig. 3)
Even though in this method all tines are measured and included in the
score, it still is necessary to identify the typical tines, because the
beam circumferences must be measured between
typical tines, disregarding any nontypical tines that may be present.
Measure the length of each valid typical tine on each antler. If a
tine is broken so that its far point is not on the line of measurement,
it should be carded off. A valid tine must be at least 1 inch long, and
no wider than its length. A typical tine is one that grows in the
typical location and manner. Be sure not to measure the tip of the main
beam as a tine. While the beam tip is always a typical point, it is not
a tine, and its length is already included in the length of the main
beam. Each typical tine on whitetailed deer antlers has a specific
identification number: Tl, T2, T3, etc., as illustrated. Record its
length on the proper line on the entry form. Any typical tines that are
missing are to be identified by a zero. There is no set limit to the
number of typical tines that can grow on a whitetailed deer antler (the
Rackulator can measure nine) however, it is unlikely to exceed six or
seven. To be considered typical, a tine must grow in a typical manner
and location, and form the typical pattern for that species. A typical
brow tine (Tl), if present, must grow upward from the top of the beam
and not from the side or bottom of the beam, or from the burr. The other
typical tines must grow upward from the beam in typical fashion, not
from the side or bottom of the beam, or from another tine. In
whitetailed deer, only one tine (not both) of a double brow tine may be
treated as typical (normally the longer one), the other being
nontypical. However, both tines of a double tine growing elsewhere on
the main beam can be typical in some cases.
5. LENGTH OF NONTYPICAL TINES
(Fig. 4) Measure the length of each valid nontypical tine
on each antler. If a tine is broken so that its far
point is not on the line of measurement, it should be carded off. A
valid tine must be at least one
inch long, and no wider than its length. Nontypical tines are those
that do not qualify as typical. 


Mule Deer Instructions
1. lNSIDE SPREAD of Main Beams:
Measure the inside spread of the main antler beams at the widest place.
This measurement is to be at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of
the skull, and parallel to its horizontal axis.
2. CIRCUMFERENCE of Main Beam: (Fig. 1) Measure the
circumference of each main antler beam at the four places indicated
below. Circumferences must be taken at a right angle to the longitudinal
axis of the antler at the smallest place between typical tines,
disregarding the nontypical tines.
Cl. Between the burr & Tl Measure the
circumference of the main antler beam at the smallest place between the
burr and the typical brow tine, or "eyeguard" (Tl). If Tl is absent,
measure at the smallest place between the burr and second typical tine
T2), which will make this measurement the same as C2 (Fig. 2).
C2. Between Tl and T2 Measure the circumference of the
main antler beam at the smallest place between the typical brow tine
(Tl) and second typical tine (T2). If Tl is absent, measure at the
smallest place between the burr and T2, which will make this
measurement the same as C1 (Fig. 2).
C3. Between the main beam & T3 Measure the circumference
of the second typical tine (T2) at the smallest place between its
juncture with the main beam and the third typical tine (T3). If T3is
absent, measure halfway between the tip of T2 & the center of its base
where it joins the main beam (Fig. 3).
C4. Between T2 and T4 Measure the circumference of the
main antler beam at the smallest place between the second typical tine
(T2) and fourth typical tine (T4). If T4 is absent, measure halfway
between the beam tip and the center of the base of T2 where it joins
the main beam (Fig. 4).
3. LENGTH of Main Beam: (Fig. 5) First, it is necessary to
determine the main beams and their tips. The main beams are usually easy
to identify in mule deer and black tailed deer, because they will end at
the front points; however, some nontypical antlers may have more than
one projection at the end of the beam. If so, choose the one that
appears to be the logical beam tip from its contour, size and location.
Measure the length of each main antler beam from the bottom edge of the
burr (or coronet) to the tip. If a beam tip is broken so that its far
point is not on the line of measurement, it should be carded off.
The measurement follows the center of the antler's outer curve and is
essentially parallel to the longitudinal blood grooves.
Begin the measurement where the centerline of the outer curve
intersects the burr. This will be on the side of the head and behind
the eye, not in front on the forehead.
4. LENGTH OF TYPICAL TINES: (Fig. 6)
Even though in this method all tines are measured and included in the
score, it still is necessary to identify the typical tines, because the
circumference measurements must be taken between typical tines,
disregarding any nontypical tines that may be present. Measure the
length of each valid typical tine on each antler. lf a tine is broken so
that its far point is not on the line of measurement, it should be
carded off. A valid tine is at least 1 inch long, and no wider than its
length. A typical tine is one that grows in the typical location and
manner. Be sure not to measure the tip of the main beam as a tine. While
the beam tip is always a typical point, it is not a tine, and its length
is already included in the length of the main beam. Each of the four
typical tines that can
occur on a mule deer or blacktailed deer antler has a
specific identification number: Tl, T2, T3 and T4, as illustrated.
Record the length of each typical tine on the proper line on the entry
form. Any typical tines that are missing are to be identified by a zero.
Mule deer and blacktailed deer can have a maximum of five typical
points on each antler: four typical tines, including one typical brow
tine (or "eyeguard 3, plus the beam tip. If the typical brow tine (Tl)
is absent (it often is), there can be no more than four typical points
(three typical tines plus the beam tip) on that antler. Blacktailed
deer often fail to develop the T3 tine, in which case there can be no
more than four typical points on that antler, including Tl (if present)
and the beam tip, or three typical points if Tl is absent. To be
considered typical, a tine must grow in a typical manner and location,
and form the typical pattern for that species. A typical brow tine
(Tl), if present, must grow upward from the top of the main beamnot
from the side or bottom of the beam, or from the burr. The other typical
points (maximum of four) must grow upward in two forks, with T2 and T3
forming one fork, and T4 and the beam tip forming the other. (Both T2
and T4 grow from the main beam. T3 normally grows from T2; however,
sometimes the growth pattern seems reversed, with T2 appearing to grow
from T3. If so, please disregard it, because T3 should always be
measured as if it grew from T2.) In mule deer and blacktailed deer, only one tine (not both) of a double tine can
be treated as being nontypical.
5. LENGTH OF NONTYPICAL TINES (Fig. 7)
Measure the length of each valid nontypical tine on each antler. If a
tine is broken so that its far point is not on the line of measurement,
it should be carded off. A valid tine must be at least on inch long, and
no wider than its length. Nontypical tines are those that do not
qualify as typical. 

Elk or Wapiti Instructions
1. lNSIDE SPREAD of Main Beams:
Measure the inside spread of the main antler beams at the widest place.
This measurement should be at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of
the skull, and parallel to its horizontal axis.
2. CIRCUMFERENCE of Main Beam: (Fig. 1) Measure the
circumference of each main antler beam at the four places indicated
below. Circumferences must be taken at a right angle to the longitudinal
axis of the antler at the smallest place between typical tines,
disregarding the nontypical tines.
Cl. Between Tl and T2. Measure the circumference of
the main antler beam at the smallest place between the first typical (or
brow) tine (Tl) and the second typical (or bez, or bay) tine (T2). If
Tl is absent, measure at the smallest place between the burr and T2.
If T2 is absent, measure at the smallest place between Tl and the
third typical (or trez, or tray) tine (T 3), which will make this
measurement the same as C2.
C2. Between T2 and T3. Measure the circumference of the main
antler beam at the smallest place between the second typical (or bez, or
bay) tine (T2) and the third typical (or trez, or tray) tine (T3). If
T2 is absent, measure at the smallest place between the first typical
(or brow) tine (Tl) and T3, which will make this measurement the same
as Cl. If T3 is absent, measure at the smallest place between T2 and
the fourth typical (or royal) tine (T4), which will make this
measurement the same as C3.
C3. Between T3 and T4. Measure the circumference of the
main antler beam at the smallest place between the third typical (or
trez, or tray) tine (T3) and the fourth typical (or royal) tine (T4).
If T3 is absent, measure at the smallest place between the second
typical (or bez, or bay) tine (T2) and T4, which will make this
measurement the same as C2. If T4 is absent, measure at the smallest
place between T3 and the fifth typical tine (T5), making this
measurement the same as C4.
C4. Between T4 and T5. Measure the circumference of
the main antler beam at the smallest place between the fourth typical
(or royal) tine (T4) and the fifth typical tine (T5). If T5 is
absent, measure halfway between the center of the base of T4 and beam
tip. If T4 is absent, measure at the smallest place between the
third typical (or trez, or tray) tine (T3) and T 5, making this
measurement the same as C3.
3. LENGTH of Main Beam: (Fig. 2) First, it is necessary to
determine the main beams and their tips. The main beams are usually easy
to identify in elk or wapiti, because they will end at the rear most
points; however, some nontypical antlers may have more than one
projection at the end of the beam. If so, choose the one that appears to
be the logical beam tip because of its contour, size and location. If
the upper tines are palmated,
as they often are, you should draw
a pencil line across the palmation to show the upper edge of the main
beam as it would appear if the palmation had not developed. This will
make it easier to locate the center of the antler's outer curve, which
thismeasurement should follow. Measure the length of each main antler
beam from the bottom edge of the burr (or coronet) to the tip. If a beam
tip is broken so that its far point is not on the line of measurement,
it should be carded off. The measurement follows the center of the
antler's outer curve and is essentially parallel to the longitudinal
blood grooves. Begin the measurement where the centerline of the outer
curve intersects the bottom edge of the burr. This will be on the side
of the head and behind the eye, not in front on the forehead.
4. LENGTH OF TYPICAL TINES: (Fig. 3)
Even though in this method all tines are measured and included in the
score, it still is necessary to identify the typical tines, because the
beam circumferences must be measured between
typical tines, disregarding any nontypical tines that may be present.
Measure the length of each valid typical tine on each antler. If a tine
is broken so that its far point is not on the line of measurement, it
should be carded off. A valid tine is at least 1 inch long, and no wider
than its length. A typical tine is one that grows in the typical
location and manner for that species. Be sure not to measure the tip of
the main beam as a tine. While the beam tip is always a typical point,
it is not a tine, and its length is already included in the length of
the main beam. Each typical tine on an elk or wapiti antler has a
specific identification number: Tl, T2, T3, etc., as illustrated. Any
typical tines that are missing are to be identified by a zero. In
theory, there is no set limit to the number of typical tines on an elk
or wapiti antler; however, on a mature bull it is usually five (making
it a six point antler, including the beam tip), and is very unlikely to
exceed seven (for an eight point antler, including the beam tip). To be
considered typical, a tine must grow in the typical manner and location,
and form the typical pattern for that species. Typical tines on an elk
or wapiti antler grow from the front (T1 and T2) and top spaced
intervals, in a rather symmetrical pattern. Tines that grow from the
side or bottom of the main beam, or that grow from another tine, or from
the burr, are always nontypical. Extra tines (usually small) that
sometimes occur between T 1 and T2, or between T2 and T3, are also
nontypical even though they may grow from the top of the main beam in
an otherwise typical manner sometimes grow adjacent to the royal tine
(T4), are always nontypical.
5. LENGTH OF NONTYPICAL TINES (Fig. 4)
Measure the length of each valid nontypical tine on each antler. If a
tine is broken so that its far point is not on the line of measurement,
it should be carded off. A valid tine must be at least one inch long,
and no wider than its length. Nontypical tines are those that do not
qualify as typical.


Wild Sheep and Pronghorn Antelope Instructions 
Note:
The Rackulator always starts on the right side.
To measure the horns of one of these animals, the longest horn is
divided into quarters.
This is then used for both sides. To do this, press the STEP
button until Extra shows
on the screen. Roll the wheel, or use the tape to find the longest
horn. Using that figure, press the ÷2 button twice; this
will give you your quarter measurements. Now mark the base
measurement. Clear the Rackulator. Measure to the next
quarter mark. Do the same for the next twoquarter measurements.
Clear the Rackulator. Advance to CIRC1 by pressing STEP
button, and take CIRC1 measurement. Press SUB button.
This will enter CIRC1, and CIRC2 will appear, repeat until CIRC3 and
CIRC4 are completed.
Now press STEP button, Beam will show. Measure
length of horn. If you are scoring
a sheep, press STEP button until you advance to left side.
Repeat all measurements on
left side and press SCORE. If you are doing an Antelope,
press
STEP, Tine1 will show.
Now take measurement of prong. Press STEP. Advance to
left side. Repeat until completed. Press SCORE.





